Identifying and Mapping Issues, Theories, & Research in Asian/American Rhetoric(s): An Annotated Bibliography

Romance on a Global Stage: Pen Pals, Virtual Ethnography, and “Mail Order” Marriages

Posted in Uncategorized by Jennifer Sano-Franchini on February 1, 2010

Constable, Nicole. Romance on a Global Stage: Pen Pals, Virtual Ethnography, and “Mail Order” Marriages

One of Constable’s primary purposes seems to be to complicate stereotypes about transnational correspondence (commonly known as “mail-order”) marriages and relationships, focusing specifically on relationships between women from China and the Philippines, and white men from the US. Constable conducts “virtual ethnography” through “interviews, face-to-face encounters, and Internet communications that span two years or more” with Filipina and Chinese women and their partners (15).  Constable explains that her methodological decisions come in response to more text-based analyses, e.g. of catalogs, ads, and websites that connect American men to Asian women, which tend to be sensationalistic: “[E]thnographic field research can serve as a critique of textual and discursive approaches that overemphasize the sexual dimensions of correspondence courtship and overlook women’s agency” (11).

The larger theoretical work that Constable purports to do centers on the link between political economy and cultural notions of desire.  For example, she says, “I argue against a dichotomous or discontinuous view of love and opportunism that treats pragmatic concerns as incompatible with emotional ones.  I argue that political economy is not simply a backdrop to such a study, nor is it the determining force in creating correspondence marriages, but that cultural notions of love and desire are shaped by political economy” (11). To this ends, Constable discusses how certain assumptions about correspondence marriages affect political institutions; for example, she compares the immigration and naturalization policies and processes of Asian brides and Asian adoptees.  Constable considers adoption a privileged form of immigration, based on certain preconceptions about adoption as a “heroic act,” about Asians as “model minorities,” and about the possibility of natural love between parent and child as being more viable than love between prospective romantic partners.  She further explains that, “The cultural and class differences, as well as the sexuality, of the Asian wife are indelibly inscribed on her adult body, in contrast to the young child, who is viewed, in a sense, as a tabula rasa on which American middle-class values and identity can be more easily inscribed” (212).  Finally, Constable attempts to establish the wider relevance of her work, explaining that, “it is important to view correspondence relationships not as unique, but as representative of many of the issues and concerns raised by the institution of marriage in general” (224).

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Desiring China: Experiments in Neoliberalism, Sexuality, and Public Culture

Posted in Uncategorized by Jennifer Sano-Franchini on February 1, 2010

Rofel, Lisa. Desiring China: Experiments in Neoliberalism, Sexuality, and Public Culture. Durham: Duke UP, 2007.

Desiring China “describes how the production of desire lies at the heart of global processes” in the context of post-Mao, post-socialist China after the June 4th, 1989, Tiananmen demonstrations (1). In this way, Rofel draws connections between national economies, public culture, and desire, or individual subjectivities. In sum, she says, “My argument, in brief, is that central to the meanings and practices of becoming a transnational citizen-subject in China is the historical and cultural constitution of ‘desire,’” and she adds, “One of my main arguments is that the construction of this inner self occurs through public allegories” (6).  To do this work, Rofel examines and analyzes pertinent public cultures: the soap opera Yearnings; a women’s museum established by feminist Li Xiaojiang in which gender is commodified (66); transnational homosexual identities; cosmopolitan Chinese identities as constituted through consumption, sex, and fashion; legal cases pertaining to intellectual property; and negotiations over China’s entry into the World Trade Organization, in order to observe how public cultures are simultaneously contingent upon and constitutive of definitions of desire and sexuality.  In other words, this book may be understood as a study of rhetorics of desire via public culture in the context of post-socialist China; Rofel observes how meaning created in certain texts (Yearnings) or spaces (the women’s museum) are mobilized, circulated, received, interpreted, and evaluated by audiences in this specific context.  The notion of transnational desire is fundamental to this text, both for the ways in which China desires and is desired by others: “These economic reform experiments initiated the process of creating ‘desiring China’” (7, 30).